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Thursday October 2nd 2014

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Results of large-scale roll out of combination treatment for kala-azar in Eastern Africa

Results of a pharmacovigilance — or large-scale treatment safety and efficacy monitoring — plan, carried out by Doctors Without Borders, Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, and national partners in Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, and Ethiopia, were presented today to key decision makers in order to boost patient access to treatment of kala-azar with the combination of sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin in the region.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Decreased ability to identify odors may predict 5-year mortality

For older adults, being unable to identify scents may be a predictor of mortality within five years.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Montmorency tart cherry juice lowered blood uric acid levels and a marker for inflammation

Tart cherries have long been researched for their association with pain relief — from gout and arthritis pain to exercise-related muscle pain. A new study published in the Journal of Functional Foods reported consumption of Montmorency tart cherries caused changes in uric acid metabolism, which can have an impact on joint pain. The study also detected increases in specific anthocyanin compounds in the bloodstream after consuming tart cherries.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

New study explains wintertime ozone pollution in Utah oil and gas fields

Chemicals released into the air by oil and gas exploration, extraction and related activities can spark reactions that lead to high levels of ozone in wintertime, high enough to exceed federal health standards, according to new NOAA-led research, published today in Nature.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

New molecule fights oxidative stress; May lead to therapies for cancer and Alzheimer’s

Breathing oxygen helps the body create energy for its cells. As a result of the breathing process, reactive molecules called ‘free radicals’ are produced that often cause damage to proteins and genes found in cells. This damage is known as oxidative stress. Free radicals also have been linked to cancer, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Now, investigators at the University of Missouri have discovered a molecule that treats oxidative stress.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Predicting the future course of psychotic illness

Psychiatry researchers from the University of Adelaide have developed a model that could help to predict a patient’s likelihood of a good outcome from treatment — from their very first psychotic episode.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Spiders: Survival of the fittest group

Theorists have long debated the existence and power of a type of evolution called group selection. Now, studying social spiders, two scientists have uncovered the first-ever experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations of these spiders.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Stem cell discovery could lead to better treatments for blindness

Scientists at the University of Southampton have discovered that a region on the front surface of the eye harbors special stem cells that could treat blinding eye conditions.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Fibromyalgia and the role of brain connectivity in pain inhibition

The cause of fibromyalgia, a chronic pain syndrome is not known. However, the results of a new study that compares brain activity in individuals with and without fibromyalgia indicate that decreased connectivity between pain-related and sensorimotor brain areas could contribute to deficient pain regulation in fibromyalgia, according to an article published in Brain Connectivity.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Study finds potential new target to treat asthma attacks brought on by colds

Researchers have identified a molecular mechanism that could explain why the common cold can bring on life-threatening asthma attacks.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 4:00 am

Science News Headlines – Yahoo News

Get the latest Science news headlines from Yahoo News. Find breaking Science news, including analysis and opinion on top Science stories.

Lack of ice forces some 35,000 walruses to chill on Alaska shore

An estimated 35,000 walruses are pictured are pictured hauled out on a beach near the village of Point Lay, Alaska in this handout photoBy Steve Quinn JUNEAU (Reuters) – Fast-melting Arctic sea ice has forced some 35,000 Pacific walruses to retreat to the Alaska shoreline, scientists from several federal agencies said on Wednesday. Walruses are accomplished divers and frequently plunge hundreds of feet to the bottom of the continental shelf to feed. But they use sea ice as platforms to give birth, nurse their young and elude predators, and when it is scarce or non-existent they haul themselves up on land. …

Posted on 2 October 2014 | 2:16 am

Paul Allen eyes Dream Chaser space plane to fly people into orbit

Seattle Seahawks owner and Microsoft co-founder Allen takes a photo prior to ringing the opening bell at the New York Stock ExchangeBy Irene Klotz TORONTO (Reuters) – - A passenger spaceship that lost a bid for additional NASA funding may have new life ferrying passengers for Paul Allen’s space startup, Stratolaunch Systems, company officials said on Wednesday. Privately owned Sierra Nevada Corp is challenging NASA’s September 16 decision to award contracts worth $6.8 billion for space taxi development and flights to competitors Boeing and Space Exploration Technologies, which is owned and operated by technology entrepreneur Elon Musk. The U.S. …

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 10:16 pm

Fighting Hockey Concussions with Safer Helmets (Op-Ed)

John Varrasi is a senior staff writer for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). As a new hockey season dawns, mounting concerns about concussions are inspiring Virginia Tech researchers to evaluate the sport’s helmets for safety and durability. The tests involve embedded sensors, real-world conditions in an ice rink and controlled impacts in a laboratory. “Part of the strategy to reduce the incidences of concussions at all levels of competitive hockey involves improvements in head protection,” said Steven Rowson, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Virginia Tech.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 9:52 pm

Stunning Photo Captures ‘Wild Duck’ Star Cluster in Flight

Stunning Photo Captures 'Wild Duck' Star Cluster in FlightA spectacular new photo shows a cluster of stars whose brightest objects form a triangle that has been likened to a flock of ducks in flight. The European Southern Observatory's La Silla Observatory in Chile captured the beautiful image of Messier 11, also known as NGC 6705 or the Wild Duck Cluster, revealing the blue stars of one of the most star-rich open clusters known. The Wild Duck Cluster lies approximately 6,000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Scutum (The Shield). It is one of the most star-rich and compact open clusters, boasting nearly 3,000 stars within its 20-light-year diameter.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 9:48 pm

Ebola Isolation Procedures: A Close Look

The first patient to be diagnosed with Ebola in the United States is receiving treatment while isolated in a Texas hospital, but what does such isolation involve, and how exactly do doctors ensure the deadly virus doesn’t spread to others? Experts say that hospitals routinely isolate patients with infectious diseases, and the type of isolation required for an Ebola patient would be the same as what is already done for hospital patients with the flu or meningitis. The first step in isolation involves putting a patient in a private hospital room, or in a room with someone with the same infection, said Dr. Amesh Adalja, an infectious-disease physician at the University of Pittsburgh. Then, doctors follow different protocols depending on the type of infection the person has — including whether the infection can be spread by physical contact, by droplets of body fluids or through the air, Adalja said.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 8:43 pm

Neuroticism and Long-Time Stress Linked to Alzheimer’s in Women

Women who feel anxious, moody and distressed for significant amounts of time during middle age may be at an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease later in life, a new study suggests. The researchers found that the women with the highest levels of neuroticism who also experienced long-standing distress were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease as the women with the lowest levels of neuroticism. “We … saw that persons with a high degree of neuroticism, combined with a low degree of extraversion, had the highest risk of AD,” study author Lena Johansson of the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, told Live Science. However, the women’s levels of neuroticism alone did not have a significant effect on their risk of Alzheimer’s, unless their neuroticism was also accompanied by long-standing distress, according to the study.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 8:17 pm

Scientists find potential way to treat cold-triggered asthma

LONDON (Reuters) – British scientists have identified a sequence of biological events that could trigger life-threatening asthma attacks in people suffering from colds — a finding that holds the potential for developing more effective medicines. In a study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the researchers found that a small molecule, or ‘cytokine’, called IL-25 may play a central role in the effect that viruses causing colds have on people with asthma. …

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 6:01 pm

Lattes in Space! Espresso Machine Will Launch to Space Station

Lattes in Space! Espresso Machine Will Launch to Space StationMoments after David Avino turned on an espresso machine in the middle of the International Astronomical Congress exhibition floor here Monday (Sept. 29), more than a dozen bystanders stopped in their tracks to watch it brew. The machine — called ISSpresso — is a prototype similar to one that will fly to the International Space Station in April 2015 aboard Orbital Sciences' robotic Cygnus cargo vessel.

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 5:24 pm

Ditch U.N. temperature target for global warming, study says

By Alister Doyle OSLO (Reuters) – A temperature goal set by almost 200 governments as the limit for global warming is a poor guide to the planet’s health and should be ditched, a study published in the journal Nature said on Wednesday. The world’s environment ministers agreed in 2010 to cap a rise in average surface temperatures at 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial times as the yardstick to avoid more floods, heat waves, droughts and rising sea levels. …

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 5:11 pm

Gene plays key role in monarch butterfly’s miraculous migration

Monarch butterflies fly at the El Rosario butterfly sanctuary in MichoacanBy Will Dunham WASHINGTON (Reuters) – The 3,000-mile (4,800-km) mass migration of monarch butterflies in North America is one of the insect world's fantastic feats, with millions embarking on the arduous journey from as far north as Canada down into Mexico and the California coast each autumn. Scientists who scoured the genome of these colorful insects offered new insight on Wednesday into this annual airborne adventure. They pinpointed a single gene related to flight muscle efficiency that plays a major role in the monarch butterfly's migration. …

Posted on 1 October 2014 | 5:07 pm