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Tuesday January 27th 2015

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Lung cancer clues found in downstream pathway

A new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center sheds light on the KRAS pathway with a potential target that might have more success at stopping lung cancer growth.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Cell mechanism discovered that may cause pancreatic cancer

Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah have found that defects in how cells are squeezed out of overcrowded tissue to die, a process called extrusion, may be a mechanism by which pancreatic cancer begins. From these findings, they may have identified an effective way to reverse the defective extrusion’s effects without destroying normal tissues nearby. The results were published in the latest edition of the journal eLife.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

LA BioMed study finds traumatic brain injury treatment is ineffective

Researchers finds platelet transfusions and DDAVP are not effective in preventing further bleeding in the brain or in reducing the risk of death for patients with traumatic brain injuries.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Researchers advance the science behind treating patients with corneal blindness

Researchers in the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute have devised a novel way to generate transplantable corneal stem cells that may eventually benefit patients suffering from life-altering forms of blindness.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Age concern in largest ever study of heroin user deaths

Older users of opioids such as heroin are 27 times more likely to become a victim of homicide than the general population, a University of Manchester study of almost 200,000 users has found.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Supercomputing the evolution of a model flower

Cold and drought sensitive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering plant found to evolve differential expression responses. Findings increase basic understanding of plant adaptation and can be applied to improve crops. Scientists combined lab data from grown plants with genomic analysis through the Stampede and Lonestar supercomputers of the Texas Advanced Computing Center and the iPlant Collaborative.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Mothers’ ‘baby talk’ is less clear than their adult speech

While we might be inclined to think that ‘baby talk’ is easier for children to understand, new research findings in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, suggest that mothers may actually speak less clearly to their infants than they do to adults.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Low influenza vaccination rates among nursing home employees put residents at risk, study finds

Influenza is associated with as many as 7,300 deaths annually in nursing home residents, but the vaccination rate for nursing home staff is only 54 percent, according to a study in the February issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Targeted biopsy technique linked with increased detection of high-risk prostate cancer

Among men undergoing biopsy for suspected prostate cancer, targeted magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion biopsy, compared with a standard biopsy technique, was associated with increased detection of high-risk prostate cancer and decreased detection of low-risk prostate cancer, according to a study in the Jan. 27 issue of JAMA.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Man trumps dog: Earlier assumption about BPA exposure confirmed

Coating the mouth with BPA-containing food, like soup, does not lead to higher than expected levels of BPA in blood, a new study in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology shows. The study authors conclude that oral exposure does not create a risk for high exposures of BPA, also known as bisphenol A.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 5:00 am

Science News Headlines – Yahoo News

Get the latest Science news headlines from Yahoo News. Find breaking Science news, including analysis and opinion on top Science stories.

Freshwater Fish are Disappearing: Where is the Global Response? (Op-Ed)

Freshwater Fish are Disappearing: Where is the Global Response? (Op-Ed)Sue Nichols is the assistant director of the Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability at Michigan State University. Freshwater fish are global assets — like the waters they swim, they're practically everywhere. To millions of people in the developing world, they're a crucial source of food, often caught one line or net at a time. Yet freshwater fish are shy on lobbyists.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 8:47 pm

Will Enormous Galactic Bubbles Expose Dark Matter? (Kavli Q+A)

Will Enormous Galactic Bubbles Expose Dark Matter? (Kavli Q+A)Compared to other galaxies, the Milky Way is relatively peaceful. Unlike in other galaxies, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way doesn't ravenously suck in huge meals of gas or spit out enormous jets of radiation and light.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 8:47 pm

Google Lunar XPrize Milestone Awards Announced

Google Lunar XPrize Milestone Awards AnnouncedAndrew Barton, director of technical operations, Google Lunar XPrize contributed this article to Space.com's Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights. Astrobotic, Hakuto, Moon Express, Part-Time Scientists and Team Indus have spent the past year putting their hardware and software through a series of rigorous tests and technical reviews monitored by a judging panel of leading space, science and engineering experts. Tonight, they will be awarded a combined $5.25 million in Milestone Prizes in recognition of key technological advancements toward their quest to land a private spacecraft on the surface of the moon. To win the $30 million Google Lunar XPrize, teams are required to land a robot on the moon.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 8:46 pm

Remarkable fossils push back snake origins by 65 million years

An artist rendering from oldest-known snake fossilsBy Will Dunham WASHINGTON (Reuters) – Snakes have been slithering on Earth far longer than anyone ever realized. Scientists on Tuesday described the four oldest-known snake fossils, the most ancient of which was a roughly 10-inch-long (25 cm) reptile called Eophis underwoodi unearthed in a quarry near Oxford, England, that lived about 167 million years ago. The remarkable fossils from Britain, Portugal and the United States rewrite the history of snake evolution, pushing back snake origins by tens of millions of years. Until now, the oldest snake fossil dated from about 102 million years ago, said University of Alberta paleontologist Michael Caldwell, who led the study published in the journal Nature Communications.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 6:21 pm

US Obesity Rates Have Risen Most in Older Adults

Obesity rates have increased in most age groups in the United States in recent years, but the biggest rise has been in older adults, according to a new poll. Over the past five years, the obesity rate among people ages 65 and older has increased by 4 percentage points — from 23.4 percent in 2008 to 27.4 percent in 2014, according to the poll, from Gallup and Healthways. During that same time period, obesity rates among people ages 45 to 64 increased by 3.5 percentage points (from 29.5 percent to 33 percent), and obesity rates among people ages 30 to 44 increased by 2.3 percentage points (from 27.0 percent to 29.3 percent). Young adults ages 18 to 29 had the smallest increase, at just 0.3 percentage points (from 17.4 percent to 17.7 percent).

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 4:57 pm

New-generation solar panels far cheaper, more efficient – scientists

Workers walk among newly installed solar panels at a plant in Zhouquan township of TongxiangBy Magdalena Mis LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) – A new generation of solar panels made from a mineral called perovskite has the potential to convert solar energy into household electricity more cheaply than ever before, according to a study from Briain's Exeter University. Super-thin, custom-coloured panels attached to a building's windows may become a "holy grail" for India and African countries, Senthilarasu Sundaram, one of the authors of the study, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation. With a thickness measured in billionths of a metre, solar panels made of perovskite will be more than 40 percent cheaper and 50 percent more efficient than those commercially produced today, Sundaram said.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 4:34 pm

Do Kids Really Need to Drink Milk?

We’ve all heard the slogans about milk: It does a body good, it’s a natural thing to drink and it builds strong bones. No, of course they don’t,” said Amy Lanou, a professor of nutrition at the University of North Carolina at Asheville. Most people in the world do not drink milk after they are weaned from breast milk, and yet still get adequate nutrition, she added. Most people have heard that the calcium in milk helps people grow strong bones.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 4:23 pm

Scientists ask if Ebola immunises as well as kills

Ebola survivor Alimamy Kanu poses for a picture at Devil Hole"The virus may be bumping into people it can't infect any more."     Latest World Health Organization data show new cases of infection in West Africa's unprecedented Ebola epidemic dropping dramatically in Guinea, Sierra Leone and particularly in Liberia.     Most experts are sure the main driver is better control measures reducing direct contact with contagious patients and corpses, but there may also be other factors at work.     So-called herd immunity is a feature of many infectious diseases and can, in some cases, dampen an outbreak if enough people get asymptomatic, or "sub-clinical" cases and acquire protective antibodies. After a while, the virus – be it flu, measles, polio – can't find non-immune people to be its hosts.     But some specialists with wide experience of disease outbreaks are highly sceptical about whether this phenomenon happens in Ebola, or whether it could affect an epidemic.     "There is some suggestion there may be cases that are less severe… and there may even be some that are asymptomatic," said David Heymann, an infectious disease expert and head of global health security at Chatham House.     "But herd immunity is just the wrong term.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 9:14 am

Scientists ask if Ebola immunizes as well as kills

A health worker disinfects a road in the Paynesville neighborhood of MonroviaBy Kate Kelland and Emma Farge LONDON/DAKAR (Reuters) – A recent sharp drop in new Ebola infections in West Africa is prompting scientists to wonder whether the virus may be silently immunizing some people at the same time as brutally killing their neighbors. So-called "asymptomatic" Ebola cases – in which someone is exposed to the virus, develops antibodies, but doesn't get sick or suffer symptoms – are hotly disputed among scientists, with some saying their existence is little more than a pipe dream. "We wonder whether 'herd immunity' is secretly coming up – when you get a critical mass of people who are protected, because if they are asymptomatic they are then immune," Philippe Maughan, senior operations administrator for the humanitarian branch of the European Commission, told Reuters. "The virus may be bumping into people it can't infect any more." Latest World Health Organization data show new cases of infection in West Africa's unprecedented Ebola epidemic dropping dramatically in Guinea, Sierra Leone and particularly in Liberia.

Posted on 27 January 2015 | 8:44 am

University of Wisconsin closes laboratory, ending cat experiments

A University of Wisconsin research laboratory that attracted controversy for using live cats in experiments is closing this year, the school said. The University of Wisconsin at Madison said its Department of Neuroscience will no longer conduct experiments related to “sound localization” because Tom Yin, the department interim chair and chief researcher, is retiring at age 70. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals had criticized Yin for experiments the advocacy group said were cruel.

Posted on 26 January 2015 | 9:12 pm